Saturday, October 2, 2010

Guidance is an act of directing a person free will, knowledge of material things through a person senses ,and preparing and directing a person free will,

GUIDANCE ROLE OF AN INDUSTRIAL TECHNICAL-METAL WORK TEACHER  IN NIGERIA SECONDARY SCHOOL.                                                                                                            BY

Guidance as a subject matter is a new corner in our schools system and the society: Recently introduce and being appropriated in colleges of education and the university as an innovation in our educational system. The function of guidance according to many scholars since the time of the prophets is that, "it is an attempt to help systematically a person to make a wise decisions and satisfactory personal adjustment [Ezra 7: 101 However, Okeke [1994] presented the meaning of guidance as those concern which a teacher can help his pupil/student to face and to make a transition to the problems and responsibilities of their adult work roles. It is also observed that guidance by popular view is that process of fitting people to jobs by using a battery of test.
Most philosophers in their doctrines of education especially Jan Amos Comenius [1592-1670] of which the Archbishop of Germia [the most Rev. M.Sheeham in his text, Apologetics and catholic doctrine], put it to us that, guidance is an act of service offer in:-
1. preparing and directing a person free will,
2. knowledge of material things through a person senses and
3. the important of immaterial things through the mind.
These concept, seem to say that, if guidance is to function well in its exercised: it is suppose to guide a person {pupil/student/student} the resolution of the conflict he has naturally viewed with the reasons for his growth determination {Lacey 1954:71-73; Ezeji 2001:2}. These scholars have variously term as, Intellect, Reasons or Mind, Causation and Explanation of human behaviors. Also on these terms many theoretical models of guidance are developed and presented as the role of guidance {Ejeji 2001:146-158; Okeke 1996} in our school system.
Experience on this art with other professional Engineers/ Technologist and encyclopedic concept of industrial technical-metal which subjects concern with:-
1. tools that can do things better than human muscle and hands.
2. power which can out do the strength of muscles a billion fold;
3. materials whether they occur in nature or are contrived by the physicist or chemist;
4. Above all using these components tools, power and materials to any desire methods {Chapman 1967-1971, 1972; Baker 1969; Shotbolt 1973; Ryder & Bennett 1978; Makieko 1987}.
The metal work teacher seems to my experience to fit basically the following conceived function {Ma'aji l984}:-
1. getting student motivation to learn the art of shaping, molding and fitting metals in the most:-
{a} Efficient
{b} Economical manner possible.
2. teaching the skill of sound citizenship, in the art of metalwork.
3. adjusting himself to his own role as humanist.
4. educating pupil/student for life
5. The custodian of morals in the art of metal work.
In addition deductions from Okorie {2001} Okoro {1991} Nwachukwu {2001} Okeke {1991} and Castle {1970}, is the use of methodologies that are flexible to cater for the individuals needs and phase.
Metal work is an art of fitting works, machines operations and foundry works: Which should be mastered by mechanics:-
1. Running agricultural machinery's
2. Running construction equipment.
3. Running car and trucks.
4. Running factory equipments etc. Especially in bench work and fitting skills.
Despite the various specialties in metal work art, all must be proficient in such typical metal work operations as:-
{a} Laying out and chipping;
{b) Straightening and bending;
{c} Cutting, filling and drilling;
{d} Counter sinking, counter boring and reaming;
{e} Threading and riveting;
 (f) Fitting and lapping;
 {g} Soldering, tinning an adhesive bend
The use of power tools, fixtures and machine tools has brought the metal work art closer by the character of work to the machinist. Metal work involves the operation of shapers, grinders, lapping machines, and other types of machine tools.
The working of metal by hand is less productive than by machine tools and it takes greater physical effort. Hence, whenever possible, it is replaced by machining operations which must be carried out expertly by a competent metal worker. The skill of a metal worker manifests itself in high workmanship and productivity of his labour.
THE GUIDANCE ROLE OF INDUSTRIAL TECHNICAL-METAL WORK TEACHER The collaborative information deduced from Glenn et al {1968: 7-9}, Okeke{1996}, Rusk{1979: 13-15} Smith{1969: 384-385}, Ezeji{2001: 146-157} Olaitan{1999:83-84} Grace{1994:35-37} is that role which guidance act on the development of individual student or groups of pupil/student by a teacher. These deduction can summarily be presented as the role of guidance : "those help given to an individual student or persons to become aware of himself or themselves, in finding personal meaning in his/her academic and other experiences ( in a vocation or occupation ) to develop his/her potentialities, and to find his/.her own identity".
They also direct that, in other to achieve the above mentioned role of guidance, the following services are required:-
1. Counceling services
2. Vocational informational services
3. Measurement and evaluation — testing — services
4. Inventory or cumulative records
5. Placement, Follow-up and Appraisal As a teacher in metal work who is being educated not to misdirect and misguided in a school system : To successfully implement the 5 points raised, in the art of metal work . The 5 points and their implication inevitably need to be examined.
According to Ezeji (2001) and Okorie (2001) is that, counceling
services is the professional assistance given to a client who does not know the differences between right and left of his decision, being vulnerable and anxious. The principal objectives as they mentioned are:-
'a' the development of the client,
'b' the improvement of his welfare and
'c' the better improvement on his problems.
For the metal work teacher is on the above mentioned 3 objectives is purely of academic and vocational concern. This is done as soon as individual reaches a level at which some choice is allowed among courses that have collateral benefit with abilities and interest leading toward industrial technical-metal.
In the art of counceling the metal work teacher may take any of the following:-
I. face-to-face discussion generally known as interview
II. through writing
III. using tape recording and play back
IV. conversation through the telephone.
For the present situation and developments in our school system, the face to face is of the commonest approach in counceling. Therefore, to which I will expatiate on.
This is achieved by setting a conclusive environment or situation where meaningful discussion can take place This in the first place is done for :-
I. The avoidance of-- to be metal work student -- shying away for fear of being overheard;
II. If under stress or emotional unrest the student will not want to walk past many curious eyes or to step out into a corridor having lot of fellow students.
Secondly, the discussion depends also upon on the type of problem to
be solved e.g. Sorting out previous information about the student so that he can accumulate accurate information for him.
Thirdly, there must be an establishment for rapport such that the relationship is that:-
I. easy
II. comfortable and
III. free,
Where each person can be honest and the student can learn to be,
i.e. the relationship should not be that of a servant talking with his master.
Since the industrial technical-metal work teacher is the second parent of the student.                                                                                                                        2 VOCATIONAL INFORMATION SERVICES
Vocational informational services should be grounded in the pupil/student sense of experience (that of building of readiness) not in books and words ;In essence it necessitates :-
I. an analysis of the skills, understanding and knowledge to study given material.
II. diagnostic protest or other devices to determined not only the level of each prospective learner (Okoro 1994; Nworgu 1992 : 187-193 ;Castle 1970: 126-134), but also the specific areas of strength and weakness and nature and origin of errors (Umeano 1999: 38-68 ; Glenn et Al 1962:415-434; Ezeji 2001: 195-206)
III Instruction program (Nwachukwu 2001: 37-123) with a good deal of early individual guidance (Ezeji 2001: 30-35) designed to march teaching with individual need and abilities (Grace1994: 79-91). This could be achieved in (a) field trip (b) books written on occupations(c) employers and employees-
verbal discussions (d) vacation-placements and try-outs (e)organizing career weeks.
These above is observed to circle around the following suggestions:
            ­A, instructing what pupil/student/student need now for the particular moment of their development toward stability (Ngwoke 1997)
B. care for the people in an unsentimental way (Walberg Paik 2001; Foster et al 2002)
C. identify yourself with their present strivings in metal work (Okorie 2001)
D. observe the phenomenon of growth in their infinite Variety (Ngwoke 1997).
E. feed their curiosity (Ma 'aji 2000)
F. Watch, refrain, encourage, guide without seeming to (Glenn et al 1962:171-193, Brown 1965: 350-414)
G. rule not through the agencies of fear and repression but through the gentler appeal of matured example (Edern 1998: 75-76; Ngwoke 1997: 64-75)
Summarily, vocational information service and the metal work teacher is that procedural instruction in gentling pupil/student well informed about the world of metal work so that they make personal adjustment in making realistic career choices.
Testing services are carried out for deduction and. diagnostic attainment of pupil/student/student. These in order to ascertained and provide a more valid/reliable information about the individual pupil/student/student so tested in area of :-
A. very poor ability;
B. unduly acceleration;
C. significant achievement below ones ability
D. ability well above average.
These above, within the set curriculum with other core curriculum in making a pupil/student/student whole individual in metal work art subjects.
This testing according to Okoro(2000) and Nworgu(1992) could take one or more of the six forms below :-
(I)                  Intelligence testing
(II)            Aptitude testing
(III)      Personality testing
(IV)    Achievement testing
(V)      Socio-metric testing
(VI)            Vocational interest schedules
These above mentioned tests in the past years are provided for mastery rewarding. This is so, especially when the pupil/student/student himself realizes that learning one thing permits him to go on to something that seemed beyond his reach. On this the metal work teacher role, is to direct, guide his pupil/student/student to the fact: unless certain basic skill are mastered more deliberate skills becomes increasingly and even permanently out of reach.
For guidance to be a successful event, the first essential ingredient is a detailed and accurate case history of a pupil/student/student. Experience has
shown the best case history is the one which begins at primary school and continue to accumulate to the end of junior secondary school i.e. pre- vocational guidance (the initial stage where the primary pupil/student begin to split to various post —primary ,each with inclination of vocational choice) which parents and children need: This form a convenient and meaningful foundation .for for a sound guidance programme of any metal work teacher.
In our present school system, such a cumulative case history is recorded as continue assessment. For such record to be of any value they must be:-
1. accurately kept and up to date,
2. initially standard entries must be made about the pupil/student/student like
a .                                        nam  e
b     .   address
c     age
d.         father’s and Mother's occupation.                                       This must be accurately entered and checked by each new metal work teacher.
Entering of test results and evaluating them is task for :-
                         I. Head of subject
II. Head of department and
III. The metal work class teacher.
For the child social adjustment and school achievement can be obtained from the class teacher, because he has more contact with the pupil/student than anyone in the school system. He usually with care make:-
A. useful assessment of the pupil/student adjustment in class.
B. information about the pupil/student in an organized games and at play.
C. useful information on the pupil/student home background - this is important for dealing with a problem child (Okekel 991)
D. notice of social adjustment and asses’ leadership potentiality
E. notes for instance
I. anti-social behaviors
II. when nervous or timid
III. bully tendencies
IV. aggressiveness
V. when feeling shy
VI. symptoms of tension as stammering.
However, it is notice that cumulative record required time and effort to compile; but the outmost value to the:-
                      A. metal work teacher
B head of subjects C head of departments
D school guidance officer
E school psychologist
F psychiatrists
G principal/Headmaster
Any other agency and for follow —up purposes in helping a pupil/student or persons to make and adequate adjustment to his/her social group make cumulative record worth the effort {Ezeji 2001, Okeke 2000 and Grace 1994}
These are experiences of which a pupil/student is subjected, for observation and personal adjustment to real live work situations. The work experience is done in industries or other organization, for most science and technical subjects. Today, in our educational system, the experiences form part of course content. On this the student or grandaunt is formally attached or employed with an establishment to know really:-
1. what they hate or like about work situations
2. the time taking for doing the work.
3. the numeration and other income accrue to the work
4. prospect on personal advancement and higher responsibilities.
5. the relationship of their personalities tallying with the demand of the work
Therefore a student who must have completed his studies and being attached or employed for work; There is the need to see their performance's and asses their output in the career of choice base on how the initial training has helped prepared. These for the purpose of adjustment on the training programs.
For a successful guidance role of a metal work teacher the following recommendation are made and would entail:-
(i) The continuity of cumulative record of a pupil/student from primary school or primary school and junior secondary school.
(ii) Interview at regular interval to carefully investigate and encourage {find out} more about pupil/student job interest: particularly as regards the degree of the pupil/student fantasy for job choice.
(iii) Close watch on pupil/student adjustment to his metal work career, particularly on the first few years: when necessary notes be entered in the cumulative record against {delinquency, problem behavior in school, truancy, failure to adjust In the play ground} lack of school progress, neurotic symptoms with desire tendency to leave school at the first opportunity.
(iv) Co-operation and understanding of other staff of the school which they work.
Working together can reach a high level of efficiency through the school years in metal work through adolescence to function as a well adjusted adult member of society {Grace 1994, Okeke 1994 Ezeji 2001 and Okorie 2001}
CONCLUSION                                                                                                          This presentation has dealt with the major phases of a metal work teacher's guidance role: getting motivation to learn, teaching the skills within the free will and determination of pupil/student. Adjusting himself to his own role as recommended, helping pupil/student to adjust in workshop and class rooms so that they function within limits of their abilities.
The metal work teacher should also concerned with what happens to his pupil/student when they leave his care and in which he can help them face and make a transition to the problems and responsibilities of their adult work roles.
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